More recently, the approach has been criticized for being grounded in the liberal notion of freedom: This is a fundamentally reductive view of the human condition. Essays on Aristotle's De anima. Therefore, agency is crucial in assessing one's capabilities and any economic, social, or political barriers to one's achieving substantive freedoms. Poverty is understood as capability-deprivation. Some merits associated with this approach to measuring well-being are that it recognizes the importance of taking account of the results of social arrangements in judging them and the need to pay attention to the well-being of the people involved when judging social arrangements and their results. The Human Development Index takes into consideration a number of development and well-being factors that are not taken into account in the calculation of GDP and GNP. 'This is a very helpful discussion of the main issues connected with the capability approach to social justice associated with Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1993. Mots-clés: Approche des capabilités, empowerment, Amartya Sen, Martha Nussbaum, questions fondamentales JEL: O10 1 This paper has been improved by David Crocker, Jay Drydyk, Eric Palmer, and an anonymous reviewer.  Furthermore, since the creation of the Human Development and Capability Association in the early 2000s, the approach has been much discussed by political theorists, philosophers, and a range of social scientists, including those with a particular interest in human health. She claims that a political order can only be considered as being decent if this order secures at least a threshold level of these 10 capabilities to all inhabitants. Capabilities are the alternative combinations of functionings that are feasible for a person to achieve.  She points out that the notion of (combined) capability "combines internal preparedness with external opportunity in a complicated way, so that measurement is likely to be no easy task.". Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Oxford University Press, 1999) Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (Cambridge University Press, 2000) Martha C. Nussbaum, Beyond the Social Contract: Capabilities and Global Justice (2002?)  Given Nussbaum's contention that the goal of the capabilities approach is to produce capabilities for each and every person, the capabilities below belong to individual persons, rather than to groups.  Understanding the various aspects of economic development process not only helps address issues of inequality and lags in human development, but also helps to pinpoint where countries lag, which once addressed can further promote well-being and advancement. The GEM focuses particularly on the relative empowerment of women in a given country. Monetary vs. non-monetary measures of well-being, Human Development and Capability Association, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, International Association for Feminist Economics, Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Important publications in development economics, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, "The development of capability indicators", "Capability and functionings: definition & justification", "Creating Capacities for Human Flourishing: An Alternative Approach to Human Development", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, Who's Counting? That is, in order to be agents of their lives, people need the freedom to be educated, speak in public without fear, express themselves, associate, etc. The file will be sent to your email address. , Nussbaum also points out that GNP and GDP omit income distribution and the opportunity or ability to turn resources into activities (this critique stems directly from Capabilities Approach). For example, when a person chooses to engage in fasting, they are exercising their ability to pursue a goal they value, though such a choice may not positively affect physical well-being.  The resulting measure was entitled the Human Development Index, created by Mahbub ul Haq in collaboration with Sen and others. HOME / PUBLICATIONS / The Quality of Life Citation: Sen A. Think of how transformative and joyous–and often improbable–are so many of the relationships people in international development cooperation enjoy .  Specifically, Nussbaum mentions that output-based approaches ignore the distribution of needs for the varying circumstances of people, for example a pregnant woman needs more resources than a non-pregnant woman or a single man.. Overall, though resources and income have a profound effect on what we can or cannot do, the capability approach recognizes that they are not the only things to be considered when judging well-being, switching the focus from a means to a good life to the freedom to achieve actual improvements in lives, which one has reason to value.  Consequently, an understanding of what constitutes functionings is inherently tied together with an understanding of capabilities, as defined by this approach.  Moreover, it is noted that the HDI "is a weighted average of income adjusted for distributions and purchasing power, life expectancy, literacy and health" (p. 16), The HDI is calculated for individual countries with a value between 0 and 1 and is "interpreted...as the ultimate development that has been attained by that nation" (p. Martha Craven Nussbaum, Amartya Sen. Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1996 - Business & Economics - 588 pages. Well-being and quality of life are too important to be left without intentional focus towards political change.. Essentially, functionings are the states and activities constitutive of a person's being. 243). However, two particular lines of work, in research and policy have sought to show that meaningful indicators of what individuals (and in some cases governments) are able to do can be developed and used to generate a range of insights. can make two people have extremely divergent opportunities of quality of life, even when equipped with exactly the same commodities. It tries to reconcile the rationality and morality of individuals. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Consequently, the capability set outlined by this approach is not merely concerned with achievements; rather, freedom of choice, in and of itself, is of direct importance to a person's quality of life. 0 Reviews. The Quality of Life - Ebook written by Martha Nussbaum, Amartya Sen. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. This provides an alternative to rights-based theories of change and development for the non-Western world. In this approach, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum bring together a range of ideas that were previously excluded from (or inadequately formulated in) traditional approaches to the economics of welfare. The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is considerably more specialized than the GDI. Nussbaum lays out the capabilities approach to human development, which she has developed jointly with Amartya Sen, in this monograph. Arguably, the main difficulty in a resource- or income-based approach to well-being lies in personal heterogeneities, namely the diversity of human beings. In significant respects, the approach is consistent with the handling of choice within conventional microeconomics consumer theory, although its conceptual foundations enable it to acknowledge the existence of claims, like rights, which normatively dominate utility-based claims (see Sen 1979). Oxford England: Clarendon Press. Kuznets provides the example of the process by which farmers devote time and energy to bringing virgin land into cultivation. Amartya Kumar Sen (sinh ngày 3 tháng 11 năm 1933) là nhà kinh tế học, triết gia Ấn Độ. The utility calculus can essentially be unfair to those who have come to terms with their deprivation as a means for survival, adjusting their desires and expectations. , The capability approach is being developed and increasingly applied in health economics, for use in cost-effectiveness analysis. In companies, capabilities are included in Key Development Indicators, or KDIs as measures of development, including employee development.  However, measuring resources is fundamentally different from measuring functionings, such as the case in which people don't have the capability to use their resources in the means they see fit. Simon Kuznets, the developer of GNP, cautioned against using the measure as an indicator of overall welfare, which speaks to the unintended use of output-based measures as indicators of human welfare. , In addition to being the result of capabilities, some functionings are also a prerequisite for capabilities, i.e., there is a dual role of some functionings as both ends and instruments. In sum, having a lifestyle is not the same as choosing it; well-being depends on how that lifestyle came to be. This paper contributes to the The following are a few of the major indices that were created based on the theoretical grounds of Capabilities Approach. It may take up to 1-5 minutes before you receive it. First, she notes that GNP and GDP do not consider special requirements to help the most vulnerable, such as women. They use these applications to argue that the capability framework is a particularly good fit for understanding quality of life across the life course and that it provides a relatively universal grammar for understanding the elements of human well-being. 78 No. The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is an economic theory conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics. It is noteworthy that the emphasis is not only on how humans actually function but also on their having the capability, which is a practical choice, "to achieve outcomes that they value and have reason to value". They are nevertheless an important one, since richer economies are better placed to create and maintain other well-being-enhancing conditions, such as a clean environment, the likelihood that the average person will have a right to 10 years or more of education, and lead a comparatively long and healthy life.  In this way, the GDI accounts for shortcomings in the HDI in terms of gender, because it re-evaluates a country's score in the three areas of the HDI based on perceived gender gaps, and penalizes the score of the country if, indeed, large gender disparities in those areas exist. The Capability Approach: Comparing Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum Nithiya Guna Saigarana*, Premalatha Karupiahb and Parthiban S. Gopalc a,b&c School of Social Sciences Jointly edited with Martha Nussbaum. Well-being will also be increased by institutions that enable citizens to feel that they control their own lives, and that investment of their time and resources will be rewarded. The programme of work operationalising the capability approach by Anand and colleagues draws heavily on Nussbaum's list as a relatively comprehensive, high-level account of the space in which human well-being or life quality is experienced.  Agency depends on the ability to personally choose the functionings one values, a choice that may not correlate with personal well-being. BibTex; Tagged; XML; Notes: Italian translation, Feltrinelli, 1997. Examples of functionings that are a direct requirement for capabilities are good nourishment, mental and physical health, and education. In addition, the approach has been operationalised with a high income country focus by Paul Anand and colleagues. The capability approach, however, seeks to consider all such circumstances when evaluating people's actual capabilities. Amartya Sen Thomas W. Lamont University Professor, and Professor of Economics and Philosophy.  A number of measures have been created for use in particular contexts such as older people, public health and mental health, as well as more generic capability-based outcome measures. For one, it requires specifying the context of use of capabilities, which could vary. This book explores the interconnected concepts of person, responsibility and freedom in economics, moral philosophy and politics. Love's knowledge: essays on philosophy and literature.  The capabilities approach has been very influential in development policy where it has shaped the evolution of the human development index (HDI), has been much discussed in philosophy, and is increasingly influential in a range of social sciences. Lastly, Amartya Sen makes the argument that the utilitarian view of individual well-being can be easily swayed by mental conditioning and peoples' happiness adapting to oppressive situations. The "anti-bads" or the defensive expenditures to fight "bads" are not counted as a deduction in accounting systems (p. It presents a methodological reflection (phenomenology versus Kantian thought) with the aim to re-humanise the person, through actions, and through the values and norms that lead to corresponding rights and obligations that must be ordered. Martha C. Nussbaum (1 October 1998). The compound problem is that freedom in Nussbaum’s hands is both given an intrinsic and primary value (a reductive claim), and, at the same time, the list is treated as a contingent negotiated relation in tension with other virtues such as justice, equality and rights. The purpose was to create an indicator of human development, especially one that would provide a general assessment and critique of global human development to shed light on persistent inequality, poverty and other capability deprivations despite high levels of GDP growth.. This index is used in unison with the HDI and therefore also captures the elements of capabilities that the HDI holds. Capability approach pioneered by Amartya Sen has been a new milestone for analyzing poverty through gender perspective. The Human Development Index is calculated using the indicators of life expectancy, adult literacy, school enrollment, and logarithmic transformations of per-capita income. Formulations of capability have two parts: functionings and opportunity freedom — the substantive freedom to pursue different functioning combinations. The Quality of Life.  In this example, the functioning is starving but the capability to obtain an adequate amount of food is the key element in evaluating well-being between individuals in the two states. Possibilities of application are discussed in the context of important practical problems, such as correcting gender-based inequalities, determining medical priorities, and promoting living standards. Sen, Amartya (1970) The impossibility of a Paretian liberal, Journal of Political Economy Vol. AMARTYA SEN Amartya Sen is Lamont University Professor at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract The two concepts — human rights and capabilities — go well with each other, so long as we do not try to subsume either concept entirely within the territory of … by ignorance, government oppression, lack of financial resources, or false consciousness. 152 –157. ” —Amartya Sen, winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics “ A marvelous achievement: beautifully written and accessible. , Nussbaum further distinguishes between internal capabilities that are personal abilities, and combined capabilities that are "defined as internal capabilities together with the social/political/economic conditions in which functioning can actually be chosen". This end is often lost in the immediate concern with the accumulation of commodities and financial wealth that are only a means to expansion of capabilities. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read.  These activities provide economic benefits, but are not valued in national accounting systems; this suggests that the definition of unemployment used in output-based measures is inappropriate. , The core capabilities Nussbaum argues should be supported by all democracies are:, Although Nussbaum did not claim her list as definite and unchanging, she strongly advocated for outlining a list of central human capabilities. The remaining flaws are my own.  In support of this index, Sakiko Fukuda-Parr—a development economist and past Director of The Human Development Report Office—differentiates between income poverty and human poverty. In the most basic sense, functionings consist of "beings and doings". Currently the HDI continues to be used in the Human Development Report in addition to many other measures (based on theoretical perspectives of Capabilities) that have been developed and used by the United Nations. Sen’s version of capa bility approach clarifies that . Converted file can differ from the original.  In 1990 in the Human Development Report (HDR)commissioned by the UNDP set out to create a distribution-sensitive development measure. As for Martha Nussbaum’s list, I think she is missing lot of what actually happens in public action, even if she is right that ODA frameworks are often rather limiting and limited. In the 2013 Human Development Report the Gender Inequality Index, which was introduced in 2011, continues to adjust the GDI and the GEM.  Currently, the 2011 Human Development Report also includes the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index which accounts for exactly the same things that the HDI considers however the IHDI has all three dimensions (long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living) adjusted for inequalities in the distribution of each dimension across the population. Amazon Price New from Used from Kindle Edition "Please retry" CDN$ 97.95 — — Hardcover "Please retry" CDN$ 111.15 — …  Kuznets has often made this point, in his words, "distinctions must be kept in mind between quantity and quality of growth, between costs and returns and between the short and long run.  Ultimately, capabilities denote a person's opportunity and ability to generate valuable outcomes, taking into account relevant personal characteristics and external factors. Recognising women's contribution to the global economy through alternative accounting systems", United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, "Operationalising the capability approach as an outcome measure in public health: The development of the OCAP-18", "Development of a self-report measure of capability wellbeing for adults: the ICECAP-A", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Teachers' Professional Capabilities and the Pursuit of Quality in Sub-Saharan African Education Systems", Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Capability_approach&oldid=992240644, Wikipedia external links cleanup from March 2018, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The importance of real freedoms in the assessment of a person's advantage, Individual differences in the ability to transform resources into valuable activities, The multi-variate nature of activities giving rise to happiness, A balance of materialistic and nonmaterialistic factors in evaluating human welfare, Concern for the distribution of opportunities within society, Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other humans, to engage in various forms of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 06:24. 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